Cardiometabolic Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Patterns in U.S. Youth

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

Daily or weekly averages of physical activity and sedentary behavior could mask patterns of behavior throughout the week that independently affect cardiovascular health. We examined associations between day-to-day physical activity and sedentary behavior latent classes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in U.S. youth.

Methods: Data were from 3984 youth ages 6–17 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2006) and from previously published accelerometry latent classes characterizing average counts per minute and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of the classes with waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C and LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin.

Results: Participants spent 50.4% of the day in sedentary behavior and 5.3% of the day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Average counts per minute were 516.4 for a 7-d period. Significant differences in CVD risk factors were between extreme classes with few differences observed in intermediate classes. Youth in latent class 4 (highest average counts per minute) had lower systolic blood pressure (−4.11 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −7.74 to −0.55), lower glucose (−4.25 mg·dL−1, 95% CI = −7.84 to −0.66]), and lower insulin (−6.83 μU·mL−1, 95% CI = −8.66 to −4.99]) compared with youth in class 1 (lowest average counts per minute). Waist circumference was lower for the least sedentary class (−2.54 cm, 95% CI = −4.90 to −0.19) compared with the most sedentary class. Some associations were attenuated when classes were adjusted for mean physical activity or sedentary level.

Conclusions: There is some indication that patterns, in addition to the total amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior, may be important for cardiovascular health in youth. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine associations between physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns and changes in CVD risk factors.

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Objective Measures of Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic and Endocrine Biomarkers

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

Although physical activity is an established risk factor for chronic disease prevention, the specific mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. We examined the associations between total activity counts and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) measured by accelerometer, and physical activity energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water, with plasma levels of proinsulin, insulin, c-peptide, insulin growth factor binding protein-3, insulin growth factor-1, adiponectin, leptin, and leptin-sR.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 526 healthy US women in the Women’s Lifestyle Validation Study, 2010 to 2012. We performed multiple linear regression models adjusting for potential lifestyle and health-related confounders to assess the associations between physical activity, measured in quartiles (Q) and biomarkers.

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Results: Participants in Q4 versus Q1 of total activity counts had lower proinsulin (−20%), c-peptide (−7%), insulin (−31%), and leptin (−46%) levels, and higher adiponectin (55%), leptin-sR (25%), and insulin growth factor-1 (9.6%) levels (all P trend ≤ 0.05). Participants in Q4 versus Q1 of MVPA had lower proinsulin (−26%), c-peptide (−7%), insulin (−32%), and leptin (−40%) levels, and higher adiponectin (31%) and leptin-sR (22%) levels (all Ptrend ≤ 0.05). Further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) attenuated these associations, but the associations with adipokines remained significant. Those in Q4 versus Q1 of physical activity energy expenditure had lower leptin (−21%) and higher leptin-sR (10%) levels (all P trend ≤ 0.05), after additional adjustment for BMI. In the sensitivity analysis, the associations were similar but attenuated when physical activity was measured using the subjective physical activity questionnaire.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that greater physical activity is modestly associated with favorable levels of cardiometabolic and endocrine biomarkers, where the strongest associations were found with accelerometer-measured physical activity. These associations may be only partially mediated through BMI, further supporting the role of physical activity in the reduction of cardiometabolic and endocrine disease risk, independent of adiposity.

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BFY provides training for Personal Trainers and courses in Sports nutrition and Diet in cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Pune, Dehradun, Jaipur, Lucknow, Gurgaon.

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Cardiometabolic Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Patterns in U.S. Youth

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

Daily or weekly averages of physical activity and sedentary behavior could mask patterns of behavior throughout the week that independently affect cardiovascular health. We examined associations between day-to-day physical activity and sedentary behavior latent classes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in U.S. youth.

Methods: Data were from 3984 youth ages 6–17 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2006) and from previously published accelerometry latent classes characterizing average counts per minute and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of the classes with waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C and LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin.

Know more about us at http://www.bfysportsnfitness.com 

BFY provides training for Personal Trainers and courses in Sports nutrition and Diet in cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Pune, Dehradun, Jaipur, Lucknow, Gurgaon.

BFY also provides Placements Services in India.

Results: Participants spent 50.4% of the day in sedentary behavior and 5.3% of the day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Average counts per minute were 516.4 for a 7-d period. Significant differences in CVD risk factors were between extreme classes with few differences observed in intermediate classes. Youth in latent class 4 (highest average counts per minute) had lower systolic blood pressure (−4.11 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −7.74 to −0.55), lower glucose (−4.25 mg·dL−1, 95% CI = −7.84 to −0.66]), and lower insulin (−6.83 μU·mL−1, 95% CI = −8.66 to −4.99]) compared with youth in class 1 (lowest average counts per minute). Waist circumference was lower for the least sedentary class (−2.54 cm, 95% CI = −4.90 to −0.19) compared with the most sedentary class. Some associations were attenuated when classes were adjusted for mean physical activity or sedentary level.

Conclusions: There is some indication that patterns, in addition to the total amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior, may be important for cardiovascular health in youth. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine associations between physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns and changes in CVD risk factors.

Know more about us at http://www.bfysportsnfitness.com 

BFY provides training for Personal Trainers and courses in Sports nutrition and Diet in cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Pune, Dehradun, Jaipur, Lucknow, Gurgaon.

BFY also provides Placements Services in India.

Physical Activity, Not Sedentary Time, Predicts Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry–measured Adiposity Age 5 to 19 Years

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

Purpose: To examine the associations among physical activity (PA), sedentary time (SED), and TV viewing (TV) with fat mass (FAT) and visceral adipose tissue mass (VAT) from childhood through adolescence (5–19 yr).

Methods: Participants in the Iowa Bone Development Study (n = 230 males and 233 females) were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 yr. Accelerometers measured moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA; min·d−1), light-intensity PA (LPA; min·d−1), and SED (h·d−1). Parent-proxy report (5 and 8 yr) and child-report (11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 yr) measured TV (h·d−1). X-ray absorptiometry scans measured FAT (kg) and VAT (g). Sex-specific growth models were used to create FAT and VAT growth curves for individual participants (level 1), and to test the effect of MVPA, LPA, SED, and TV (level 2) after adjusting for weight, height, linear age, nonlinear age, and maturity.

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Results: Growth models indicated that low levels of MVPA were associated with high levels of FAT and VAT for males and high levels of FAT for females. TV viewing was positively associated with FAT and VAT for males and females. LPA was positively associated with FAT in males. Sedentary time was not associated with FAT or VAT for males or females (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: This study supports current PA guidelines focusing on MVPA rather than SED. The contribution of high TV, but not high SED, to high levels of adiposity suggests that TV’s contribution to obesity is not just a function of low energy expenditure.

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Physical activity outside school vital for child health

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

The study suggests that efforts to increase exercise during the school day will not be enough for children to meet the recommended one hour of physical activity a day, set by the chief medical officer.

Researchers looked at the time Year 4 youngsters (aged 8-9) spent taking part in physical activity outside of school, including after school clubs, playing in the neighbourhood and in the home.

To track the children, the team used accelerometers to measure mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time every day for a week.

The key findings from the study, which looked at 1,223 pupils from 47 state-funded primary schools, were:

• Children who attended sport or exercise clubs five days per week were 67 per cent more likely to meet the chief medical officer’s recommendation than those who never attend

• Children who regularly attended after-school physical activity programmes gained around an extra 7.5 minutes of physical activity per day than children who do not attend

• Playing in the neighbourhood or garden was associated with comparable increases in physical activity as attending after-school clubs.

Russ Jago, professor of paediatric physical activity and public health at the University of Bristol, who led the study, said: “This research highlights the importance of physical activity outside of school hours. It is already clear that reaching the recommended physical activity levels solely during school hours is a near-impossible goal.

“Parents should encourage their children to attend after-school clubs, attend community groups and play in their neighbourhood. All four types of activity contribute equally so parents should find the best balance for their children.”

The research was published in BMJ Open and funded by the British Heart Foundation.

“This research should give impetus to parents and teachers to give children opportunities to be physically active throughout the day, whether it’s encouraging them to attend an after-school club or replacing screen time with a run around in the park,” said the foundation’s associate medical director, Dr Mike Knapton.

“Habits developed in childhood can last a lifetime. Encouraging more children to stay active outside of school will undoubtedly improve the future cardiovascular health of our population.”

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Physical Activity and Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease(CVD) and Cancer

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

Although the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and some cancers, there are no estimates of lifetime risk of these non-communicable diseases according to PA levels. We aimed to estimate the lifetime risk of CVD and cancers according to PA levels. METHODS: We followed 5,807 men and 7,252 women in the U.S. age 45–64 initially free of CVD and cancer from 1987 through 2012, and used a life table approach to estimate lifetime risks of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and total cancer according to PA levels: poor (0 minutes/week of MVPA), intermediate (1–74 minutes/week of VPA or 1–149 minutes/week of MVPA) or recommended (≥75 minutes/week of VPA or ≥150 minutes/week of MVPA). RESULTS: During the 246,886 person-years of follow-up, we documented 4,065 CVD and 3,509 cancer events, and 2,062 non-CVD and 2,326 noncancer deaths. In men, the lifetime risks of CVD from 45 through 85 years were 52.7% (95% confidence interval, 49.4–55.5) for poor PA and 45.7% (42.7–48.3) for recommended PA. In women, the respective lifetime risks of CVD were 42.4% (39.5–44.9) and 30.5% (27.5–33.1). Lifetime risks of total cancer in men were 40.1% (36.9–42.7) for poor PA and 42.6% (39.7–45.2) for recommended activity; in women, 31.4% (28.7–33.8) and 30.4% (27.7–32.9), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with a poor PA level, WHO recommended PA was associated with lower lifetime risk of CVD, but not total cancer, in both men and women.

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BFY provides training for Personal Trainers and courses in Sports nutrition and Diet in cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Pune, Dehradun, Jaipur, Lucknow, Gurgaon.

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