Osteoporosis – Exercise

Blog By- Dr Rohit Bahuguna – BFY Faculty

Exercise can help build strong bones and slow down bone loss & will benefit bones no matter at what age you start.For maximum benefit one should exercise regularly Combine low impact strength training exercises with weight-bearing exercises. Strength training helps strengthen muscles and bones in your arms and upper spine

Weight-bearing exercises — such as walking, jogging, running, stair climbing, skipping rope, skiing and impact-producing sports — mainly affect the bones in your legs, hips and lower spine.

Swimming, cycling and exercising on machines such as elliptical trainers can provide a good cardiovascular workout, but because such exercises has low impact, they’re not as helpful for improving bone health as weight-bearing exercises are.

Exercising regularly in childhood and adolescence can ensure that you will reach peak bone density.

Need to participate in weight bearing exercise. For example, walking, dancing, jogging, stair climbing, racquet sports and hiking.


  • Do not over do or over stress during exercising.
  • Do not sit in front of computer or TV for longer time
  • Stabilize/support the joints e.g. OA knee while doing exercise
  • Do not hold bad postures during exercises as it may lead to further complications
  • Maintain a proper posture while sitting, standing or doing any activity
  • Do not walk or run on uneven surfaces
  • Do not lift heavy objects
  • Take little breaks while exercising
  • Avoid sudden sit ups or any exercise that bends your back excessively
  • Do not do high impact exercises
  • Avoid twisting activities


  • Triceps stretch

  • Back and shoulder stretch

  • Chest stretch

  • Calf stretch

  • Hams stretch

  • Quards stretch


  • Shoulders

  • Shouder blades strengthening

  • Biceps

  • Triceps

  • Quadriceps

  • Hamstring

  • Hip flexors

  • Hip extensor

  • Hip abductor

  • Pelvic tilt


  • Ardha matsyendrasana

  • Ushtrasana

  • Parvatasana-variation

  • Supta pawanmuktasana


  • Supta Udarakarshana

  • Bhujangasana

  • Chaturanga dandasana

  • Tadasana

  • Utkatasana

  • Virabhadrasana-2

  • Ek pada pranamasana

Check on your calcium levels ,do exercises regularly and conquer osteoporosis.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Basic to be understood

Blog By – Vaishali Khanna– BFY Faculty

PCOS is a common endocrine disorder.The primary lesion is unknown.Patients have a steady state of relatively high estrogen,androgen and Leutinizing Hormone(LH) rather than fluctuating condition seen in ovulating women.Increased levels of estrone come fro conversion of ovarian and adrenal androgens to estrone in body fat(in obesity cases).The high estrone levels are believed to cause suppression of pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) and a relative increase in LH.Constant LH stimulation of the ovary results in anovulation,multiple cysts and theca cell hyperplasia with excess androgen output.

In addition,there is insulin resistance leading to high levels of insulin in the blood which further leads to weight gain and obesity.


It is very important to distinguish between PCO (Polycystic ovaries) and PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome).Having PCO does not necessarily mean you have PCOS. A syndrome is usually defined as a pattern of symptoms belonging to particular disease.Medical studies using ultrasound have found that around one in four women has polycystic ovaries(PCO),but most of them have none or few of the other symptoms associated with PCOS.

  • Excess hair on the body(Hirsutism)
  • Acne and other Skin problems
  • Scalp hair loss
  • Irregular or missed periods
  • Heavy periods
  • Fertility problem
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Weight issues

Even if specific symptoms are not causing an immediate problem, PCOS can have significant long term effects,including diabetes,heart disease and endometrial or breast cancer.This happens because of unopposed estrogen secretion.

In addition they show hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance which leads to early onset diabetes type II and therefore hyperlipidemia and its complications.

Obesity-a major risk factor for Sleep Apnea

Blog By – Vaishali Khanna – BFY Faculty

Obstructive Sleep Apnea(OSA) is a potentially life-altering and life-threatening breathing disorder that occurs during sleep.

The upper airway repeatedly collapses,causing cessation of breathing(apnea) or inadequate breathing (hypoapnea) and sleep fragmentation.The breathing stops during sleep for 10 seconds to a minute or longer. Oxygen levels in the blood decreases. Sleep fragmentation results in chronic daytime sleepiness.This disrupts healthy sleep and causes a number of short term and long lasting effects that threaten the health and well being of those who suffer from the condition.

How many people have OSA?

4% of men and 2 % of women aged 30-60 years meet minimal diagnostic criteria for OSA with excessive daytime sleepiness.

People most likely to have or develop OSA may have any of the following:

  • Obesity,especially in the upper body
  • Male gender
  • Small upper airway due to excess throat tissue or abdominal jaw structure
  • Nasal Obstruction
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Family History of OSA
  • Overweight Obese individuals


Excess body fat on the neck and chest constricts the air passage ways and sometimes the lungs.Obesity,particularly abdominal and upper body obesity,is the most significant risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea. The more obese a person,the greater the risk of apnea.


General things that can make a big difference include:

  • Losing some weight,if you are overweight or obese
  • Avoid alcohol,sedative and hypnotics
  • Sleeping on your side or in a semi propped position

If you have sleep apnea,do not take sleep medicines or sedatives.These chemicals will increase the relaxation in the tissues of the upper airway and make the obstruction worse.The specific treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is usually a mask worn at night to keep the airway open.

If OSA is left untreated,it can increase the risk of developing:

  • Hypertension
  • Cardiac arrhythmias
  • Myocardial ischemia
  • Stroke Pre-diabetes
  • Decreased quality of life

Not only does sustained weight loss improve OSA ,it also improves many other independently linked co-morbidities such as Hypertension,high cholesterol and diabetes.The greater the change in body weight or waist circumference,the greater is the improvement in OSA.



Cardiometabolic Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Patterns in U.S. Youth

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

Daily or weekly averages of physical activity and sedentary behavior could mask patterns of behavior throughout the week that independently affect cardiovascular health. We examined associations between day-to-day physical activity and sedentary behavior latent classes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in U.S. youth.

Methods: Data were from 3984 youth ages 6–17 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2006) and from previously published accelerometry latent classes characterizing average counts per minute and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of the classes with waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C and LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin.

Results: Participants spent 50.4% of the day in sedentary behavior and 5.3% of the day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Average counts per minute were 516.4 for a 7-d period. Significant differences in CVD risk factors were between extreme classes with few differences observed in intermediate classes. Youth in latent class 4 (highest average counts per minute) had lower systolic blood pressure (−4.11 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −7.74 to −0.55), lower glucose (−4.25 mg·dL−1, 95% CI = −7.84 to −0.66]), and lower insulin (−6.83 μU·mL−1, 95% CI = −8.66 to −4.99]) compared with youth in class 1 (lowest average counts per minute). Waist circumference was lower for the least sedentary class (−2.54 cm, 95% CI = −4.90 to −0.19) compared with the most sedentary class. Some associations were attenuated when classes were adjusted for mean physical activity or sedentary level.

Conclusions: There is some indication that patterns, in addition to the total amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior, may be important for cardiovascular health in youth. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine associations between physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns and changes in CVD risk factors.

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Overtraining syndrome: five signs you need to take it easy

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

Overtraining syndrome is a condition that occurs when the body is pushed (through exercise) beyond its natural ability to recover. Importantly, it’s not to be confused with mere tiredness, which is to be expected whenever you are engaged in a comprehensive workout regime.

So how do you know when you have it?

The mild overtraining syndrome is basically the same as having the flu: you feel rundown, and getting out of bed in the morning is tough. In extreme cases, when the body’s requests for recovery continue to be ignored, long-term neurological, hormonal and muscular symptoms could occur.

The balance between training hard and resting is always going to be a juggling act. It takes time to get to know your body and what its capable of. Once you learn to identify the signs of overtraining syndrome you’ll be able to strategically reign back your training in order to recover and come back harder another day.

Here are the top five signs to look out for:

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1. Elevated Resting Heart Rate

As a general practice in health and fitness, it is useful to know your resting heart rate upon waking.

While the healthy range is 60-100 beats per minute, the fitter you get the lower your RHR will be. So much so that many athletes and fitness fanatics have a resting heart rate in the 40s when fully fit.

During periods of overtraining, you’ll notice that your waking heart rate will be 10-15 beats per minute higher than usual. Interestingly, this will also be the case when your body is in the early stages of fighting off an illness, so anytime you detect an elevated heart rate take a rest and perhaps consider some countermeasures, like antioxidant supplements.

Also, note that RHR can be affected by medication.

2. Insomnia

Counter-intuitively, knackering yourself out at the gym can actually make it harder to get to sleep.

If you are going to bed tired yet laying there unable to get to sleep and this coincides with an increase in training frequency or vigor, the chances are that you are overtraining.

Best practice is to take a few days away from the gym in order to recover and let your hormones and central nervous system restore their equilibrium. The supplement ZMA can also help improve your quality of sleep.

3. Emotional Changes

Overtraining syndrome has influences far beyond the physical realm. Because of the tax on your hormones and the general strain on your system, it’s not uncommon to encounter emotional changes such as a lack of motivation and lower self-esteem. In advanced cases, even depression has been observed.

4. Muscular Soreness

I’m not referring to typical post-workout muscle soreness here; it’s completely natural to feel some soreness for a couple of days after training – especially when you are doing regular resistance training.

However, if your aches are lasting three to four days and beyond, it’s probably a sign that your body has not adequately been able to recover and you need to consider taking a break in training.

You may also feel muscles ache that you haven’t actually trained. For example, sufferers of overtraining syndrome often report feeling aches in their legs and hips, even when they haven’t directly worked those areas in the gym.

5. Poor Performance

Perhaps the easiest to spot indicator of overtraining is poor performance.

Generally speaking, all of your workouts should be tracked and documented. There are two main reasons for this: firstly, it helps you determine whether you are making strength and performance gains; and secondly so that if you wish to recover a certain level of conditioning in the future you can recount the workouts that led up to it.

Whilst it’s entirely possible to have an off day in the gym (your nutrition might be slightly wrong or you might be training at a sub-optimal time of day), two or three bad workouts on the trot represents a big warning sign that its either time for a new training focus, a rest week, or both!

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Physical Activity and Sleep Quality in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Trial

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

Purpose: Data from large randomized controlled trials confirming sleep quality improvements with aerobic physical activity have heretofore been lacking for post–primary treatment breast cancer survivors. Our primary purpose for this report was to determine the effects of a physical activity behavior change intervention, previously reported to significantly increase physical activity behavior, on sleep quality in post–primary treatment breast cancer survivors.

Methods: Post–primary treatment breast cancer survivors (n = 222) were randomized to a 3-month physical activity behavior change intervention (Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer [BEAT Cancer]) or usual care. Self-report (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) and actigraphy (latency and efficiency) sleep outcomes were measured at baseline, 3 months (M3), and 6 months (M6).

Results: After adjusting for covariates, BEAT Cancer significantly improved PSQI global sleep quality when compared with usual care at M3 (mean between-group difference [M] = −1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.1 to −0.7, P < 0.001) and M6 (M = −1.0, 95% CI = −1.7 to −0.2, P = 0.01). BEAT Cancer improved several PSQI subscales at M3 (sleep quality M = −0.3, 95% CI = −0.4 to −0.1, P = 0.002; sleep disturbances M = −0.2, 95% CI = −0.3 to −0.03, P = 0.016; daytime dysfunction M = −0.2, 95% CI = −0.4 to −0.02, P = 0.027) but not M6. A nonsignificant increase in percent of participants classified as good sleepers occurred. No significant between-group difference was noted for accelerometer latency or efficiency.

Conclusion: A physical activity intervention significantly reduced perceived global sleep dysfunction at 3 and 6 months, primarily because of improvements in sleep quality aspects not detected with accelerometer.

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World running out of antibiotics, WHO warns

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

Antibiotics that are currently in clinical development are insufficient to combat the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, a World Health Organisation (WHO) report said. Most of the drugs currently in the clinical phase are modifications of existing classes of antibiotics and are only short-term solutions, WHO said. There are, however, very few potential treatment options. The growing resistant infections pose the greatest threat to health, including drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) which kills around 250,000 people each year. There are also very few oral antibiotics in the pipeline, yet these are essential formulations for treating infections outside hospitals or in resource-limited settings, the report said.

“Antimicrobial resistance is a global health emergency that will seriously jeopardise progress in modern medicine,” Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of WHO, said in a statement on Wednesday. “There is an urgent need for more investment in research and development for antibiotic-resistant infections including TB, otherwise we will be forced back to a time when people feared common infections and risked their lives from minor surgery,” Ghebreyesus added. Besides TB, the WHO has also identified 12 classes of priority pathogens — including common infections like pneumonia or urinary tract infections — that are increasingly resistant to existing antibiotics and urgently in need of new treatments.

Among the newly identified 51 new antibiotics and biologicals in clinical development, only eight are classed by WHO as innovative treatments that will add value to the current antibiotic treatment arsenal, it said. “Pharmaceutical companies and researchers must urgently focus on new antibiotics against certain types of extremely serious infections that can kill patients in a matter of days because we have no line of defense,” noted Suzanne Hill, Director of the Department of Essential Medicines at WHO.

Source: IANS

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Tips to stay safe indoors during heavy rains and thunder and lightning

Blog by: Suryakant Tripathi

It is raining cats and dogs in Mumbai. Heavy rains have disturbed Mumbai’s day to day life tremendously. This happens exactly a month post the Mumbai deluge of August 29. However, more than the disturbance in the normal life and other inconveniences, heavy rainfall affects the health and mental health adversely. Here are some symptoms of monsoon diseases you need to watch out for.
Here are a few tips to stay safe indoors during heavy rains and thunder:

  • Watch current weather predictions on TV or the internet and listen to weather reports on the radio.
  • Try to make yourself happy by eating or drinking warm food and beverages to get over the gloomy mood due to the weather.
  • Subscribe to lightning and severe weather notification services and free apps available in India like AccuWeather, WeatherBug etc.
  • Scan the skies 360 degrees around and overhead before you plan to leave your home.
  • Prepare rain gear
  • Take a warm shower right after getting drenched.
  • Be extra careful about your drinking water sources.
  • Teach your kids about essential safety tips about lightning and thunder.
  • Try to keep your house clean to avoid fungal infestation to avoid allergies.
  • Unplug sensitive electronic equipment when you are experiencing heavy rainfall and storm like conditions.
  • If you are experiencing a power cut keep refrigerator and freezer doors closed; that way food can stay fresh.

Here are a few lightning safety tips if you are indoors :

  • Avoid contact with water or water pipes. Avoid taking a shower, bathing, hand washing dishes or washing clothes because lightning can travel through a building’s plumbing.
  • Avoid corded electronics and electrical equipment as lightning might travel through the cords. Cordless phones are safer. According to a study[1], the myth that mobiles or other cordless devices attract lightning has been busted.
  • An enclosed car or truck offers a great protection from lightning if you are unable to be at home.
  • Stay away from windows, doors, garages, balconies.
  • Do not lie down on the floor or lean against the walls. Lightning can travel through anything that is made up of metal. Concrete walls or flooring can be a great conductor.
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Navratri special: Tips to fast the right way and stay energized for garba

Blog By: Suryakant Tripathi

Navratri is here. While many observe a fast for these 9 days, they also enjoy the festivities by playing garba or dandiya, the traditional Gujarati dance. This needs optimum energy and stamina which may not be possible if you don’t follow the right diet. Here are some quick tips which will make fasting easier and keep you energized for your gala garba night.

9-day fasting tips

  • Fasting could prove to be tiring particularly for the stomach. Long gaps between meals and very limited options to eat could lead to acidity and slow down your metabolism. Even though one is fasting, certain foods like dry fruits and fruits are always allowed. One should make use of these food items and eat every 3 hours.
  • Keep yourself well-hydrated by the miracle fluid ‘water’. It is advisable to have as much of it as possible. The intake of water should be more than what it is on the non-fasting days. You can also drink a lot of other fluids like fresh juices and milk. These will help cleanse your toxins and maintain an optimum fluidity in your body.
  • Certain people choose to eat one whole meal during fasting but if this meal if planned wisely may take care of most nutrients required by the body. Make use of vegetables like sweet potatoes and potatoes along with main meals. Some people also add tomatoes, bottle gourd, cucumber and leafy vegetables like spinach. Do not miss out on them if they are allowed in your fast.
  • Focus on concentrated sources of energy like nuts and dry fruits to keep getting the energy throughout the day. Eating whole fruit is always better than juice as it will give you the required fiber and make you feel full. Add an extra serving of dairy product especially curds and cottage cheese in the form of buttermilk or lassi to your diet.
  • Avoid fried food items like potato chips and sabudana wadas. They are not a healthy way to fast and would lead to unnecessary acidity and weight gain in long-term considering you will be fasting for 9 days.

Stay energized for garba

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Eating an hour before garba will not make you feel heavy during the dance and will also ensure that you are not low on energy. It is important to make sure that you create a balance. Have a combination of proteins and carbohydrates to keep you going for long. You can opt for some dry fruit milkshake or a buckwheat pancake with some cottage cheese cubes.

Do not starve for a long time

Fasting has been practiced since ages for religious purposes and sometimes even as a weight loss tool.  But one cannot ignore that it’s not a usual lifestyle habit and may have long-term adverse effects on health. Most of the experts agree that fasting is not healthy if done in a very restrictive manner for a long time. It results in fluid loss and lowers the metabolic rate of the body. People who do not focus on a balanced diet otherwise, and choose to fast for more than a day may compromise immunity and suffer from dehydration and vitamin-mineral deficiencies.

This is how a healthy Navratri fasting diet plan should look:

  • Breakfast: Fruits + cup of milk
  • Mid-morning: Dry fruits
  • Lunch: Sabudana khichdi with some groundnuts in it/or wheat flour chapati with curd or buttermilk
  • Snack: Coconut water or lemon juice

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